How Cheap Flights Played a Role in Tourism Development in Accra?

Development is a dynamic process where a single factor cannot be given the whole credit. The exemplary story of tourism development in Accra is a classic example where we can find a bundle of connected elements working for promotion of the sector. According to available statistics of Ghana Tourist Board, the sector earned over 2 billion dollars in 2011, 1.61 billion dollars in 2009 and 1.40 billion in the year 2008. In addition to this, the number of tourists has also increased significantly. Over 0.8 million tourists arrived at the end of 2009, while their number crossed one million mark in 2011.

The story does not end here. The most important element that made the revenue soar higher is increasing percentage of business tourists coming to the city. 3 years back, out of total number of tourists, 23% were business people, while in 2010 and 11; the percentage has increased by 10 percent. There are many factors that played their role in the development of the tourism industry in Ghana. Here is a brief analysis of few important factors that played vital role in making sector lucrative for local and international tourists.

1- The most important factor that drove tourists to the city is peace and stability of the region in the recent past. No doubt, the country was one of the most beautiful places even one decade ago, yet the disturbing peace and deteriorating law and order situation crippled its ability to reach out international tourists.

2- Secondly, the government’s dedicated efforts to promote tourism sector have been quite fruitful. Establishment of Ghana Tourist Board was a right step in that direction and it helped country improve its international outlook and perception.

3- Tertiary, the rising number of tourists attracted airlines and tour operators in the country that started offering cheap flights to Accra and other cities. This led to growth in the competition and availability of low-cost and reliable services to local and international tourists.

4- A very important perspective that we can’t ignore is infrastructure development by the government. Few years back, you could hardly find any lucrative place to visit the city. However today, you find dozens of places across Accra, which attract visitors for their grandeur’s, beauty and landscapes.

How to Find Cheap Flights to Ghana?

As it has been noted earlier, the number of airlines operating to Ghana has increased over the years. This has led to a healthy competition in the industry and promoted the country’s tourism internationally. Therefore, availability of cheap flights and wider options for the tourists has increased the prospects of future growth in the tourism sector of Ghana. For the tourists based in United Kingdom, there are also many options of low-cost flights to Ghana.

Though almost every professional travel agency offers flights to various cities of the country but there are certain African specialist agencies that offer even more low-priced flights. CheapFlights-Harare, Reliance Travels UK, SkyScanner, TripAdvisor are few leading names that fall in this category. The good thing about electronic reservation and booking service is ease of access and decision-making. You can open different agencies pages in multi-tab browsers and compare the price plans. This helps in making the most economical decision that suits your budget and requirements of the trip. Additionally, the cost of trip is not restricted to airlines’ tickets; instead, your local travel expenses and selection of service price plans has a great impact on your overall budget.

The above given analysis further endorses my views that not a single factor can be credited to the development; instead, it is a combination of factors that leads to the development of economy and its sub-parts. However, the tourism sector is undoubtedly indebted to the handsome competition in aviation industry. Owing to the rivalry among more than 90 airlines, the cost of travelling to Africa in general and Ghana in particular has come down. From customers’ perspective, this element played the most important role in industry’s development because it increased the purchasing power of people who aspired to visit Accra, Ghana.

Sustainable Tourism- A Prerequisite of Sustainable Development

This article will provide a brief overview about the historical background, importance, concepts, principles and general debates about sustainable tourism.

Sustainable tourism is one of the pre-requisites of achieving sustainable development. the concept of tourism with sustainability and development gets its historical inclusion from mass tourism that got flourished in 1960s due to advent of jet aircraft and the passions for tourism got tremendous following and it also reached Third World countries (Dann, 2002). It was also argued that this boost pushed organizations like World Bank and UN to examine the cost benefit analysis of tourism and it was acknowledged that potential costs of tourism are far lower than financial benefits in shape of balance pf payment surpluses, infrastructure development, and employment and foreign exchange gains. So that gave rise to the concept of sustainable tourism as one of the source of bringing sustainable development. According to the World’s Summit on Sustainable Development (2002), it is claimed that Tourism is the world’s largest industry where in 2000, 698 million people travelled internationally which 7.3 % more than 1999. Similarly the economic worth of international tourism was US$477.9 billion in 2000 (Papers4you.com, 2006).

In terms of one concrete definition, literature suggests that it is not fixed and is ever evolving. However Coccossis (1996) asserts that sustainable tourism can be taken in four different interpretations that include” economic sustainability of tourism”, the “ecologically sustainable tourism”,” sustainable tourism development” with both focus of environment as well as long term feasibility of the industry and finally “tourism as a part of a strategy for sustainable development”.

As mentioned above, sustainable tourism should be taken in consideration to environmental and resources effects. It was argued that Mediterranean tourism is the main source of economic gain for the reason however short term growth was overlooked with long term adverse effect and deterioration of their ecosystem and resources (Farsari, 2000)

Effects of ignorant tourism on its sustainability include: ‘over consumption of natural resources ,environmental degradation, exploitation of cultures and labour, displacement of people from their land, lack of consultation with local communities, poorly thought out tourism planning and high foreign exchange leakage which reduces local economic benefits’ in long run (World’s Summit on Sustainable Development, 2002),

Where such effects are there to pose a threat on sustainable tourism there are guiding principles that can lead to ensure sustainability (Papers4you.com, 2006). Those principles include sustainable use of resources, waste and over-consumption reduction, diversity maintenance, tourism-planning integration, local economy support as well as local community involvement, consultation, training, research and responsible marketing (Farsari, 2000)

So the discussion suggest that tourism industry has potential to be a prerequisite for sustainable development, however it is imperative to realize that focus on mass tourism only can pose danger to environment so in order to ensure sustainability in tourism, guiding principles should be followed

References

Coccossis, H. (1996) ‘Tourism and Sustainability: Perspectives and Implications’ in Priestley, G. et al. (eds), Sustainable Tourism? European Experiences, U.K.: Cab International

Dann, G, M, S, (2002), “Tourism & Development”, in Desai V and Potter, R. (eds) (2002), The Companion to Development Studies, London: Arnold,

Farsari, Y, (2000), ‘Sustainable Tourism Indicators for Mediterranean Established Destinations’, Heraklion: IACM & FORTH

Papers For You (2006) “C/T/32. Sustainable travel & tourism”, Available from http://www.coursework4you.co.uk/sprttrav4.htm [22/06/2006]

Papers For You (2006) “C/T/27. Sustainable Tourism Development”, Available from Papers4you.com [21/06/2006]

World Summit on Sustainable Development, (2002), ‘Sustainable Tourism and the Earth Summit’, Briefing Paper, Aug 26-Sep 06, 2002, London: Tourism Concern. Also available on

http://www.tourismconcern.org.uk/media/2002/WSSD%20sustainable%20tourism%20briefing.htm

The Development of the Nautical Tourism in Croatia

The country of 1000 islands, the total revenue of the tourism in the whole of the world amounts to 100 billion euros. Nowadays Croatia gets 6% slice of the tourism cake. Before the war, tourism in Croatia was the main economic drive which was filling in the coffers of the National Bank of ex-Yugoslavia. The war has put Croatia as destination on hold but now this beautiful country is in again and everyone is buzzing about Croatia as the top European destination.

Croatia has a great potential in this economical branch. However as in every business the key is in the strategy. To revert back to the first sentence of this article, “the country of 1000 islands”, it seems to me that the answer to question regarding the strategy is self explanatory. Croatia needs to follow the example of Montenegro and it needs to create positive investment climate for the construction of mega yacht marinas. We have asked SrÄ‘ Portolan, a member of Adriatic Yacht Services management bord his viewpoint. SrÄ‘ has told us that we should follow the model employed by France. Portolan was the part of the Adriatic Yacht Services incentive trip which took place in Cap d’Antibe in March 2013. SrÄ‘ told us that he was amazed by the scale of marinas and especially those reserved for megayachts. SrÄ‘ also explained to us that the quality of the infrastracture services was second to none. SrÄ‘ Portolan stressed that this French model is what Croatia lacks.

Here in Croatia, Dubrovnik if we are to examine only two of these factors, we have failed the exam. Naturally we have to follow the example of our neighbors, Montenegrins. Porto Montenegro in Tivat, a luxury marina complex, an Anglo-Russian investment project is a success story to the point that oil struck Azeri investors are investing a serious money for the development of a new luxury marina in Kumbor. Having been to Porto Montenegro I was amazed at the scale of infrastructure, restaurants, luxury shops, luxury travel agencies, yacht dealership representative offices, car dealership representative offices which to me only highlighted the seriousness of the whole story.

At the end of the day, the conclusion one can draw is a simple one, Dubrovnik as Croatia’s top destination must find asap a solution for the construction of a marina for mega yachts before is too late. So if you get on your yacht in Porto Montenegro in Tivat and it is logical that your next stop is Dubrovnik. However if you do not have marina for megayachts let alone accompanying infrastructure and services, it is highly unlikely that you as a country read destination, are to raise this slice in the cake to let us say 8% and speed up your economic recovery.