Sustainable Tourism- A Prerequisite of Sustainable Development

This article will provide a brief overview about the historical background, importance, concepts, principles and general debates about sustainable tourism.

Sustainable tourism is one of the pre-requisites of achieving sustainable development. the concept of tourism with sustainability and development gets its historical inclusion from mass tourism that got flourished in 1960s due to advent of jet aircraft and the passions for tourism got tremendous following and it also reached Third World countries (Dann, 2002). It was also argued that this boost pushed organizations like World Bank and UN to examine the cost benefit analysis of tourism and it was acknowledged that potential costs of tourism are far lower than financial benefits in shape of balance pf payment surpluses, infrastructure development, and employment and foreign exchange gains. So that gave rise to the concept of sustainable tourism as one of the source of bringing sustainable development. According to the World’s Summit on Sustainable Development (2002), it is claimed that Tourism is the world’s largest industry where in 2000, 698 million people travelled internationally which 7.3 % more than 1999. Similarly the economic worth of international tourism was US$477.9 billion in 2000 (, 2006).

In terms of one concrete definition, literature suggests that it is not fixed and is ever evolving. However Coccossis (1996) asserts that sustainable tourism can be taken in four different interpretations that include” economic sustainability of tourism”, the “ecologically sustainable tourism”,” sustainable tourism development” with both focus of environment as well as long term feasibility of the industry and finally “tourism as a part of a strategy for sustainable development”.

As mentioned above, sustainable tourism should be taken in consideration to environmental and resources effects. It was argued that Mediterranean tourism is the main source of economic gain for the reason however short term growth was overlooked with long term adverse effect and deterioration of their ecosystem and resources (Farsari, 2000)

Effects of ignorant tourism on its sustainability include: ‘over consumption of natural resources ,environmental degradation, exploitation of cultures and labour, displacement of people from their land, lack of consultation with local communities, poorly thought out tourism planning and high foreign exchange leakage which reduces local economic benefits’ in long run (World’s Summit on Sustainable Development, 2002),

Where such effects are there to pose a threat on sustainable tourism there are guiding principles that can lead to ensure sustainability (, 2006). Those principles include sustainable use of resources, waste and over-consumption reduction, diversity maintenance, tourism-planning integration, local economy support as well as local community involvement, consultation, training, research and responsible marketing (Farsari, 2000)

So the discussion suggest that tourism industry has potential to be a prerequisite for sustainable development, however it is imperative to realize that focus on mass tourism only can pose danger to environment so in order to ensure sustainability in tourism, guiding principles should be followed


Coccossis, H. (1996) ‘Tourism and Sustainability: Perspectives and Implications’ in Priestley, G. et al. (eds), Sustainable Tourism? European Experiences, U.K.: Cab International

Dann, G, M, S, (2002), “Tourism & Development”, in Desai V and Potter, R. (eds) (2002), The Companion to Development Studies, London: Arnold,

Farsari, Y, (2000), ‘Sustainable Tourism Indicators for Mediterranean Established Destinations’, Heraklion: IACM & FORTH

Papers For You (2006) “C/T/32. Sustainable travel & tourism”, Available from [22/06/2006]

Papers For You (2006) “C/T/27. Sustainable Tourism Development”, Available from [21/06/2006]

World Summit on Sustainable Development, (2002), ‘Sustainable Tourism and the Earth Summit’, Briefing Paper, Aug 26-Sep 06, 2002, London: Tourism Concern. Also available on

Robots Air Travel Finder

Robots are specially designed intelligent beings, with a high-level artificial intelligence. They can perform a wide variety of tasks for humans and also work alongside mankind to ease workloads. Robots are being used in a number of industries. These include software, assembling and manufacturing units, development and research and medicine. Robots are also being used as air travel finders, for example, as air flight search booking engines.

The United States has the world’s largest air travel market. Citizens from the US travel extensively within the country as much as they travel abroad. These travel patterns are being closely studied. However, most travel writers are not very familiar with accurate data of the air travel industry. These shortcomings result in non-availability of precise air travel information. For this reason, robot air travel finders are being used to make traveling easier for a customer.

Development and progress of high-speed robot air travel finders has made it possible for air travel passengers to connect to the Internet to find low cost airfares. A person can access the Internet from anywhere and find air travel information regarding any place. These air flight search-booking engines are assisting people to book low cost airfares.

Air travel finder robots are able to work with enormous global records of airline flight information. They can scan information quickly and find the best fares and programs. These search engines scrutinize listed airlines that journey through travelers’ specified routes. This entire procedure is time saving and the robot air travel finder is almost always able to find an economic flight to most destinations.

The air travel industry is ever evolving and highly developed. Hence, robot air travel finder search engines are continuously updated to match pace with the air travel industry. The robot air travel finder, air flight search booking engines are a fairly new concept as compared to the actual air travel industry. However, this has not slowed the growth of robots air travel finders.

The Development of the Nautical Tourism in Croatia

The country of 1000 islands, the total revenue of the tourism in the whole of the world amounts to 100 billion euros. Nowadays Croatia gets 6% slice of the tourism cake. Before the war, tourism in Croatia was the main economic drive which was filling in the coffers of the National Bank of ex-Yugoslavia. The war has put Croatia as destination on hold but now this beautiful country is in again and everyone is buzzing about Croatia as the top European destination.

Croatia has a great potential in this economical branch. However as in every business the key is in the strategy. To revert back to the first sentence of this article, “the country of 1000 islands”, it seems to me that the answer to question regarding the strategy is self explanatory. Croatia needs to follow the example of Montenegro and it needs to create positive investment climate for the construction of mega yacht marinas. We have asked SrÄ‘ Portolan, a member of Adriatic Yacht Services management bord his viewpoint. SrÄ‘ has told us that we should follow the model employed by France. Portolan was the part of the Adriatic Yacht Services incentive trip which took place in Cap d’Antibe in March 2013. SrÄ‘ told us that he was amazed by the scale of marinas and especially those reserved for megayachts. SrÄ‘ also explained to us that the quality of the infrastracture services was second to none. SrÄ‘ Portolan stressed that this French model is what Croatia lacks.

Here in Croatia, Dubrovnik if we are to examine only two of these factors, we have failed the exam. Naturally we have to follow the example of our neighbors, Montenegrins. Porto Montenegro in Tivat, a luxury marina complex, an Anglo-Russian investment project is a success story to the point that oil struck Azeri investors are investing a serious money for the development of a new luxury marina in Kumbor. Having been to Porto Montenegro I was amazed at the scale of infrastructure, restaurants, luxury shops, luxury travel agencies, yacht dealership representative offices, car dealership representative offices which to me only highlighted the seriousness of the whole story.

At the end of the day, the conclusion one can draw is a simple one, Dubrovnik as Croatia’s top destination must find asap a solution for the construction of a marina for mega yachts before is too late. So if you get on your yacht in Porto Montenegro in Tivat and it is logical that your next stop is Dubrovnik. However if you do not have marina for megayachts let alone accompanying infrastructure and services, it is highly unlikely that you as a country read destination, are to raise this slice in the cake to let us say 8% and speed up your economic recovery.